Gandhiji left for South Africa from Bombay via S.S. Safari.
Attended the Durban Court.
Gandhiji was thrown out of moving train at Pietermaritzburg.
On the eve of his departure to India, Gandhiji read an article in Natal Mercury about the Bill to defranchise the Indians. The Indians in South Africa persuaded Gandhiji to extend his stay to lead them against the struggle with colonial rule.
Natal Indian Congress was found, with Gandhiji as Honorary Secretary.
Gandhiji was enrolled as an advocate of Supreme Court of Natal. He was the first Indian to be admitted.
His first case in South Africa. Defending Gope Maharaj and Gandhiji won this case.
Published the book – The Indian Franchise: An appeal to Every Indian in South Africa.
Applied to be appointed as interpreter in Gujarati
Left Durban for India via Calcutta
Published ‘Green Pamphlet’ in Rajkot
Reuter sent a misleading report on 'Green Pamphlet'.Addressed several meetings in India on plight of Indians in South Africa.
Left India with his family for Natal, South Africa on S.S. Courtland. S.S.Naderi also left about the same time. The two ships were carrying approximately 600 people to South Africa from India.
S.S.Courtland and S.S.Naderi reached Durban Port.
The Natal Government declared Bombay an infected port. Placed these two ships from India under quarantine.
Gandhiji gave a Christmas dinner speech aboard the ship criticizing western values.
Passengers were allowed to disembark the ships.
Gandhiji was assaulted by the European youths.
Whites’ protested against Gandhiji’s anti South Africa Government speeches in India and on board the ship.
Gandhiji objected to Durban Town council for refusing trading licenses to Indians on racial grounds.
Indians in Transvaal were ordered to move to locations.
Indians volunteered for Boer war against the Dutch.
Gandhiji felt that if Indians demanded the rights as British citizens then it was also their duty to participate in the defense of the Empire.
Gandhiji formed Indian Ambulance Corps.
Left for the front with Indian Corps.
Corps was disbanded temporarily.
Ambulance Corps was re-formed and was sent to Estcourt. Indians gave their services as stretch bearers.
They carried the wounded through heavy firings.Sent Draft Resolution to Dadabhai Naoroji, on South African Indian problem for Congress session.
Gandhiji decided to leave for India.
Attended farewell meetings.
Received gifts from well-wishers, in turn he gave these gifts to the community trust in South Africa.
Sailed with family back to India.
Disembarked at Port Louis, Mauritius.Attended the reception given by the Indian community.
Reached Rajkot via Porbundar.
Left Rajkot for Calcutta via Bombay.
Addressed the public meeting at Albert Hall, Calcutta. Spoke on the question of Indians in South Africa.
In Calcutta, he spoke on the work of Indian Ambulance Corps in South Africa.
Sailed for Rangoon.
Returned to Calcutta and stayed with Gokhale for several days.
Toured Benaras, Agra, Jaipur and Palampur .Enroute to Rajkot, traveled by third class. In Benaras, Gandhiji called on Annie Besant.
Reached Rajkot and settled down to practice law
Sets up a practice in Bombay
Recalled to South Africa to advocate against anti- Asiatic legislation in Transvaal.
Gandhiji was reluctant to leave on account of his children’s illness.
Wrote to Gokhale regarding his intension to leave for South Africa on November 20th.
Arrived in Durban
Enrolled at Bar and settled down in Johannesburg
Dispatched periodical statement to Dadabhai Naoroji on the situation of Indians in South Africa.
Wrote in 'The Vegetarian', offering tips to prospective emigrants to South Africa.
Started 'Indian Opinion'. With Mansukhlal Nazar as Honorary Secretary.
Mass meeting of British Indians to protest against licensing laws.
Wrote to medical officer of Health, Johannesburg, about the overcrowding and insanitary conditions in Indian locations. And warned about the outbreak of plague epidemic.
Informed about the breakout of plague in Johannesburg.
Informed the authorities that number of Indians were either 'dead or dying' were being dumped in the location.
Town council allocated a warehouse for a makeshift hospital but it declined to bear any further responsibility.
Was interviewed by a representative of 'The Star' on plague problem.
Wrote to Johannesburg Press about plague epidemic. Released his correspondence with Medical Officer of health.
Took over the responsibility for the management of Indian Opinion.
Read Ruskin's 'Unto This Last' while traveling to Durban.
Inspired by the book. Gandhiji decided to set-up a colony on the lines suggested in the book.
Founded Phoenix Settlement
First number of 'Indian Opinion' was issued from Phoenix settlement.
Wrote to Gokhale regarding 'Indian Opinion' and his intention to open school for Indian Children in South Africa.
Visited Cape Town with Parsee Rustomjee.
Was learning Tamil about this time.
Visited Durban and Phoenix Settlement
Gandhiji wrote in 'Indian Opinion' for abolition of salt-tax in India.
Called for united opposition to Bengal partition and supported boycott of British goods.
British Indian Association objected to the rule requiring Indian refugees to furnish European references.
Gandhiji considered Gokhale for the presidentship of Indian National Congress.
Hailed progress of swadeshi movement in Bengal.
Called for revision of poll tax and its discretionary application to poor Indians.
Acted as best man at wedding of Mr. Polak. And Miss Douns.
1 Pound tax was enforced on Indians aged 18 and above.
Mansukhlal Nazar, one time editor of Indian Opinion died.
A Statement regarding the safeguards of British Indians in Transvaal and Orange River Colony was sent by Gandhiji to Dadabhai Naoroji, who forwarded a copy to the Secretary of State for India on March 20.
Zulu Rebellion broke out this month.
Gandhiji appeared for plaintiff in tram test case at Johannesburg. (An Indian, Mr. Coovadia, wasprevented from boarding the tram-car. ( ref. -CWMG Johannesburg Letter, March 3, 1906.)
Appeared in Tram test case and won.
Gandhiji asked Indians to offer their services to the Government on the occasion of Zulu Rebellion.
Addressed Coloured peoples meeting at Johannesburg.
Natal Indian Congress decided to send deputation to England under Gandhiji's leadership.
Addressed Natal Indian Congress meeting which then offered to form an ambulance corps.
Met General Manager, Natal Government Railways regarding prohibition of Indians from traveling by certain trains between Johannesburg and Pretoria.
British Indian Association wrote to Lord Selborne regarding permits and visitors passes.
Gandhiji supported home rule for India. He wrote "in the name of justice and for the good humanity."
Judgment favouring Indians 'right to use trams awarded in Coovadia's tram test case.
Wrote to brother Laxmidas, declaring his lack of interest in worldly possessions.
Addressed meeting of Indians in Durban to raise funds for ambulance work.
Gandhiji was medically examined and certified fit.
Gandhiji was given the rank of Sergent-Major by Government.
Wrote to Gokhale about Corps; invited him to visit South Africa.
Gandhiji on ambulance duty at the front.
Stretcher-Bearer Corps disbanded.
Wrote to Dadabhai Naoroji about problems of Transvaal Indians.
Mass meeting of Indians at Empire theatre, Johannesburg. Demanded withdrawal of Pass Bill, warned Indians would resort to resistance if Ordinance became law. This meeting led to the first Satyagarha of Gandhiji.
British Indian association sends Gandhiji, H.O. Ally as a deputation to England to withdraw Oridinance. Gandhiji sails to England on S.S. Armadale .
On board S.S. Armadale ,Gandhiji learns Tamil.Gandhiji reached London. Visited J.H. Polak and stayed with him for a day.
Met Pandit Shyamji Krishnavarma.
Gandhiji was interviewed by Reuter.
Addressed Members of Parliament
Met Winston Churchill, who was at that time under- secretary of State for Colonies.
Left England for South Africa.
Visited Phoenix. Gave an account of work in England.
Wrote series of eight articles in Gujarati on 'Ethical Religion' .
British Indian association protested to the Registrar of Asiatics against taking of finger prints by police.
Mass meeting at Gaiety Theatre, Johannesburg, against the ill-treatment of Indians.
The new Parliament re-introduced Anti Asiatic Ordinance as Transvaal Asiatic registration Bill, followed by Transvaal Immigration Restriction Bill. Both these Bills were passed in Transvaal parliament as TARA and TIRA.
Act was enforced in Pretoria . First permit office opened in Transvaal. Indians were notified that they have to register themselves within a month.
Gandhiji addressed a mass meeting saying that Indians will not submit to compulsory registration.
Gandhiji arrived in Pretoria. Called at Khamisa's shop where applications for registration were being received secretly at night.
Mass meeting was held at Hamidia Islamic Society Hall, Johannesburg ,to protest against the registrations .
Day of hartal was declared in Transvaal.
Last day for registration; only 511 out of 13,000 Indians registered .
General Smuts decided to procecute Gandhiji and other pickets.
Gandhiji conducted his own trial and appeared in defence of pickets.
He was ordered to leave Transvaal within 48 hours.
TARA and TIRA came into force. (Transvaal Asiatic Registration Act and Transvaal Immigration Restriction Act.)
British Indian Association informed the authorities that Indian traders, whose licences were refused under TARA, would trade without licences.
Gandhiji told Reuters that, if TARA was suspended, all Indian traders would be registered within a month.
Wrote to Indians in Indian Opinion to be ready to face imprisonment and deportation.
Gandhiji adopted the term 'satyagraha' as the Gujarati equivalent for passive resisitance.
Addressed a meeting before a trail.
Gandhiji was tried and sentenced to jail for two months.
Agreed to settlement on basis of voluntary registration, if Registration Act is repealed.
Gandhiji was escorted to Pretoria to meet general Smuts, settlement was reached regarding voluntary registration.
Formally released from prison.
Addressed a mass meeting at Hamidia Mosque.
All satyagrahis were released.
In a meeting in Johannesburg, Gandhiji declared, if violence was to be used against those giving finger-prints, he would be the first victim.
Voluntary registration began.
Gandhiji was assaulted by Mir Alam Khan and others pathans who thought that compromise was betrayal of Indian interest.
He appealed that his assailants be forgiven and asked Asiatics to give their finger prints voluntarily
"A Dialogue on the Compromise" published in Indian Opinion.
Another attempted assault on Gandhiji in Durban by pathans.
At dinner, said to be first of its kind in South Africa, British Indian Association gave gifts to whites who had helped in satyagraha.
Last date for voluntary registration by Asiatics. 8,700 applications were received and 6000 were accepted.
Registrar of Asiatics wrote to British Indian Association pointing out that introduction of minors into Colony by Asiatics, punishable under TARA.
Indian association wrote back that enforcement of TARA was breach of compromise.
British Indian Association informed Indians to resume satyagraha.
Gandhiji offered to defend satyagrahis free of charge.
In a letter to Indian Opinion , Gandhiji announced that satyagraha was resumed
In a mass meeting in Johannesburg, Gandhiji appealed to Indians not to submit to TARA.
Addressed a meeting outside the court, Gandhiji asked traders to court arrest by trading without licences as a protest against proposed deprivation of educated Indians' rights.
Also exhorted Indian traders not to affix thumb-impressions on their licence applications under TARA.
Voluntary certificates and hawkers' licences were handed over to British Indian Association for burning.
Harilal Gandhi was arrested for hawking without licence.
Gandhiji appeared in Court to defend Harilal and others.
Mass meeting in Johannesburg in which more registration certificates were burnt.
Mir Alam and other Gandhiji's assailants, admitted their error and asked for their forgiveness. They also resolved join satyagraha and to fight to the end.
Harilal was deported from Transvaal.
Royal assent was given to amended Registration Act.
Smut refused Indian terms for settlement .
Arrested at Volksrust, along with fifteen other
Indians, for entering Transvaal without registration certificates
Gandhiji reported at road-making work on Market Square. Reuter's Volksrust correspondent wrote, "Mr.Gandhi expressed himself as being the happiest man in the Transvaal".
Gandhiji removed from Volksrust prison to Johannesburg in convict's garb to testify in Daya Lala's case; refused offer of cab, and marched on foot from Park Station to Fort, carrying prison knapsack.
Gandhiji, writing to A. H. West, declared satyagraha a religious fight and refused to obtain release, by paying fine, even to visit Kasturba who was gravely ill .
Wrote to her a farewell note.
Gandhiji released from Volksrust prison.
Interviewed at Volksrust, on way to Johannesburg, about ill-treatment in prison.
Spoke at Johannesburg reception.
Gandhiji presented Nelson, Volksrust Prison Office, Tolstoy's Kingdom of God Is within You.
Gandhiji reached Durban was given rousing reception; Left for Phoenix to meet Kasturba who was ill.
Dr. Nanji operated on Kasturba who was seriously ill for 3 months, in Durban. Gandhiji attended on her.
Gandhiji, on way to Johannesburg was arrested at Volkrust for failing to produce registration certificate. Deported and escorted to border, returned immediately and was re-arrested.Released on bail .Returned to Johannesburg.
Gandhiji, in interview to Rand Daily Mail, stated he would not be satisfied until Asiatic traders got their rights in South Africa.
Gandhiji was informed of improvement in Kasturba's condition. Left for Durban.
Gandhiji shifted Kasturba to Phoenix , who was convalescing after the surgery.
Gandhiji left Phoenix for Johannesburg.
Arrested at Volksrust along with Polak andVyas.
Sentenced to 3 months or £50 fine for failure to produce registration certificate.
Gandhiji was taken in handcuffs to Court to appear as witness.
Passive resisters congratulated Kasturba Gandhi on Gandhiji's third sentence of imprisonment for sake of self-respect and honour of Asiatic communities.
Indian women held meeting in Johannesburg.
Letter from Kasturba reported saying : "Had she wings, she would fly to the meeting."
Letter to Transvaal Press signed by Kasturba and four others released.
Gandhiji was released from Pretoria Central prison at 7.30a.m.
Gandhiji wrote to Johannesburg Press on jail experiences.
Gandhiji along with Hajee Habib left Johannesburg on deputation to England to represent Indian case.
Gandhiji, along with Hajee Habib, arrived at Southampton; was interviewed by Reuter. Reached London at 10.30 a.m.
Gandhiji purchased books for Phoenix Library.
Gandhiji attended Pateti celebrations in London.
Gandhiji and Hajee Habib had interview with Lord Crewe, expressed readiness to give undertaking that, if theoretical right of entry conceded, there would be no further agitation.
Gandhiji wrote to Tolstoy regarding passive resistance movement in Transvaal and Tolstoy's "Letter to a Hindoo".
Addressing meeting of Gujaratis in London, advised them to cultivate love for their own language.
Gandhiji presided over and spoke at Vijaya Dashami celebrations in London.
Gandhiji informed Lord Ampthill of decision to leave for South Africa and to challenge arrest on Transvaal border.
Received cable from South Africa asking him to return.
Gandhiji addressed a meeting in London. Several Indians and some Englishmen enrolled as volunteers for the Souh Africa cause.
In interview to The Daily Express, Gandhiji stated that passive resistance campaign would continue "with unabated vigour".
Gandhiji and Hajee Habib left for South Africa by s. s. Kildonan Castle.
Gandhiji wrote Hind Swaraj in Gujarati on board s.s. Kildonan Castle.
Arrived at Cape Town with Hajee Habib.
Indian Opinion reduced in size for financial reasons
Bombay Government Gazette notified that Hind Swaraj; Universal Dawn,—Gujarati rendering of Ruskin's Unto This Last, Mustafa Kamel Pasha's Speech,—a Gujarati translation of the Egyptian patriot's speech delivered just before his death, in Cairo, and Defence of Socrates or The Story of a True Warrior . All these publications of International Printing Press had been forfeited to His Majesty for reason that they "contain matter declared to be seditious".
Founded Tolstoy Farm.
Union of South Africa came into being.
In letter to Press, Gandhiji said advent of Union was no cause for rejoicing and described it as "a combination of hostile forces" arrayed against Asiatics.
Leo Tolstoy died.
Gandhiji spoke at Socialist Hall, Johannesburg, on Tolstoy and his message.
Mass meeting of Indians at Cape Town protested against Immigration Bill.
In Yeravda Jail.
Gandhiji met Smuts :' Provisional Settlement' arrived on Smuts' promise of repeal of Asiatic Registration and Immigrants' Restriction Acts.
Justice Wessels of TVL Division of Supreme Court in judgment, ruled that no Indian could bring more than one wife into the country and "that must be a woman who actually was a wife."
Gandhiji in Indian Opinion, expressed his resolve to fight tooth and nail against @£ 3 tax; also called for funds to help the famine-stricken in India.
Invited Gokhale to South Africa.
Durban Indians formed Plague Committee to help Public Health Department.
Commended Gokhale's attempts for abolition of indentured system.
Gandhiji, in Indian Opinion, again criticized Natal Immigration Officer, Cousins, for wanting fresh proof from those returning from India; asked Natal Indian Congress to take up matter.
Natal Indian Congress wrote to Secretary for Interior protesting against circular issued by Immigration Officer Cousins requiring proofs of marriage from immigrant Indian wives.
Phoenix Trust was set up.
Accompanied Gokhale on tour of South Africa,Laurenco Marques, Mozambique and Zanzibar.
Gave up European dress and milk and restricted himself to diet of fresh and dried fruits.
Indian Opinion announced Gandhiji's decision to go to India about the middle of the year, if expected Immigration Bill was passed in forthcoming session of Parliament.
In Cape Supreme Court, Justice Searle rejected Hassan Esop's appeal against deportation of his wife, Bai Miriam, on the ground that she was not Hassan Esop's lawful wife as her marriage had been contracted according to Mahomedan custom.
Indian marriages in South Africa invalidated by Searle's Supreme court.
Gandhiji in Indian Opinion, explained the procedure and evidence required for entry of minors and wives into Tranvaal.
Mass meeting of Indians was held tp protest against Searle's Supreme court judgment.
Immigration Restriction Bill read for first time in House of Assembly.
In telegram to Minister of Interior, Gandhiji asked for retention of Natal Immigration Act and protection to wives and minor children of educated Indians; regretted interpretation of reference to passive resistance as threat.
Wrote to Secretary for Interior for amending Union marriage laws to legalize non-Christian marriages.
Kasturba Gandhi decided to join struggle and offered court arrest.
Warned Government of certainty of revival of movement if it fails to grant promised relief.
Indian women in Winberg took pledges not to carry passes.
Natal Immigration Law Amendment Bill regarding
£3 tax introduced in Assembly.
Decided not to return to India and resume satyagraha.
In London, Gokhale met Fischer and discussed questions of £3 tax and Indian marriages.
Passive resistance revived.
Kasturba, along with other passive resisters, arrested.
Advised Indians to court arrest by hawking or trading without licences or by declining to produce them when demanded.
Passive resisters were deported to Natal border, but, on re-crossing border, were re-arrested and taken to Volkstust.
Kasturba Gandhi was sentenced to three months imprisonment with hard labour, other passive resisters were imprisoned from period of one to three months.
Bai Fatima Mehtab, her mother, son and attendant left Durban for Volksrust to court arrest.
Gandhiji attended Johannesburg Hindus' meeting, which pledged to support passive resistance. Medh,Pragji Desai and Manilal Gandhi sentenced to 10 days imprisonment with hard labour.
P.K. Naidoo, Jiwan Premji and nine others went out hawking in Johannesburg to court arrest.
Gandhiji released statement reiterating Indian demands, need for fresh legislation on question of marriages and £3 tax.
Visited Newcastle, urged indentured Indians to cease work till repeal of 3 pound tax.
3000 miners went on strike.
Gandhiji, from Newcastle, wired Botha that strike, in protest against £3 tax, would be ended if Government promised repeal.
In telegram to Press, said that he was advising miners to court arrest and leave mines.
Manilal Gandhi and four others arrested at Volksrust for hawking.
Gandhiji informed Secretary of Justice that if Indians, who had surrendered themselves, were not arrested, they would march into Transvaal.
Announced 'march' into Transvaal.
Led at 6.30 a.m., "Great march" consisting of 2,037 men, 127 women and 57 children, from Charlestown; addressed marchers halfway between Charlestown and Volksrust.
At Volksrust border, Police Superintendent and Immigration Officer interviewed Gandhiji and Kallenbach. Marchers broke through Police cordon, crossed border.
Gandhiji arrested at 8.30 p.m. at Palmford railway station;
Marchers continued their journey.
Gandhiji appeared in Volksrust court; was released on £50 bail; case remanded till November 14; motored 33 miles, rejoined marchers at Paadekraal. En route supplied medicines to old and infirm among passive resisters there. Telegraphed Minister of Interior for permission to continue march with other strikers, else Government should take over responsibility for looking after marchers.
Gandhiji arrived at Standerton; arrested and was released on bail of £50; case was remanded till November 21. Column continued the march.
Interviewed by Reuter, Gandhiji felt sure government would repeal £3 tax.
Arrested at about 3 p.m. at Teakworth near Greylingstaad , charged with inducing strike; not allowed to speak to satyagrahis, taken secretly to Balfour for the night.
Gandhiji's request for remand, permission to take marchers to Tolstoy Farm rejected by magistrate, forwarded to Government. Gandhiji took pledge to take one meal a day "till a repeal of the tax was promised,". Passive resisters in Maritzburg Goal went on three-day fast.
Gandhi was sentenced at Dundee to 9 months' imprisonment.
Gandhiji, in a message, praised marchers' courage and sacrifice, appealed to those not courting arrest to forgo a meal a day to provide food for strikers.
In Durban, all Indian labour working on railways, sugar refineries, dock and corporation stopped work; clash between strikers and police; 16 Indians injured, one succumbed.
Gandhiji, Polak and Kallenbach released at Pretoria on Solomon Commission's recommendation.
Several women satyagrahis released from Durban Central prison.
Suspended satyagraha following agreement with Smuts.
14 days penitential fast for moral lapse of inmates of Tolstoy Farm.
Indian Women's Sabha inaugurated in Durban; Kasturba, Mrs. Polak elected patrons.
In letter to Andrews, Gandhiji wrote : "Mrs. Gandhi was near death's door last week. I have therefore done hardly anything else save nursing her during the last 10 days."
Gandhiji wrote to Gokhale that he would leave for India by mid-July in event of satisfactory settlement and termination of struggle.
Indian Relief Act was passed.
Gandhiji had 2-hour interview with Smuts at Cape Town.
Addressed European meeting held to felicitate him on passage of Bill.
Was presented with addresses at farewell meeting in Town Hall, Durban.
Gandhiji Addressed farewell gathering at Asiatic Location, Pretoria
Took leave of Phoenix Settlement
Arrived at Johannesburg in evening; taken in procession, addressed mass meeting at Gaiety Theatre.
Paid tributes to Valliamma, Nagappen, passive resisters at memorial unveiling ceremony at Bloemfontein Cemetery.
Arrived at Cape town taken in procession from Monument to Docks, received addresses, made farewell speech.
Left for England on board S.S. Kinfauns Castle.
Indian Opinion announced a plan to issue 'Golden Number' to commemorate struggle.
World War I broke out; Gandhiji received the news in English channel; reached London.